Text: Gaunt, Harvey and Paterson, 2000 (XVIII). – Rialto 3.i.2003.
Mss.: A (29r), C (174v-175v), D (189r), I (117v), K (103v), M (142r-v), R (5v) with melody, a1 (309-310), z (2 cols B-C).
Previous editions: Jean-Marie-Lucien Dejeanne, Poésies complètes du troubadour Marcabru, Toulouse 1909, p. 77 (XVIII); Frank R. Hamlin, John Hathaway and Peter T. Ricketts, Introduction à l’étude de l’ancien provençal, second edition, Geneva 1985, p. 71; Costanzo Di Girolamo and Charmaine Lee, Avviamento alla filologia provenzale, Rome 1996, p. 115; Simon Gaunt, Ruth Harvey and Linda Paterson, Marcabru: A Critical Edition, Cambridge, D. S. Brewer, 2000, p. 237.
Versification: a7’ a7’ a7’ b3 a7’ b7 (Frank 55:9); coblas singulars; the fourth line of each stanza, Escoutatz, acts as a refrain.
Notes: This song is a piece whose structure and nature lent themselves readily to adaptation, reordering and addition, whether by Marcabru or by others. As regards the amount and order of material transmitted, there clearly was an ADIKRz version in circulation, as well as versions in M and a1 which are linked with that of C. C, however, is isolated in much of its material and, although there is every likelihood that not all of this is ‘by Marcabru’, our edition reflects these two main strands of the tradition: this edition is based on A and we also supply a secondary version of C which also takes account of material transmitted by M and a1. – For an analysis of the music, see Switten (Samuel N. Rosenberg, Margaret Switten, and Gérard Le Vot, Songs of the Troubadours and Trouvères: An Anthology of Poems and Melodies, New York and London 1998, pp. 42-43), who observes: «Melody and text here converge angrily around a small number of sounds within a tightly circumscribed musical space». See also Vincent Pollina («Les mélodies du troubadour Marcabru», in Atti del secondo congresso internazionale della Association Internationale d’Études Occitanes, Turin 1993, I, pp. 290-292) who comments that Marcabru’s satiric bite arises partly from extreme simplicity of the musical means employed (p. 290). Both musicologists note that the refrain Escoutatz is strongly marked from a musical point of view. – Scholars have frequently referred to stanza XIII (lines 73-78), cited in the vida in K, as illustrations and explanations of Marcabru’s misogyny, hostility towards love and his supposedly lowly, illegitimate origins. – Additional lines transmitted by a1 only as its eleventh stanza: